For lighter flints
|Atomic Number:||58||Atomic Symbol:||Ce|
|Atomic Weight:||140.12||Electron Configuration:||2-8-19-9-2|
|Melting Point:||795oC||Boiling Point:||3257oC|
|Description:||Soft gray rare earth metal.|
HistoryCerium was named for the asteroid Ceres, which was discovered in
1801. The element was discovered two years later in 1803 by Klaproth and by
Berzelius and Hisinger. In 1875 Hillebrand and Norton prepared the metal.
SourcesCerium is the most abundant so-called rare-earths metal. It is
found in a number of minerals including allanite (also known as orthite),
monazite, bastnasite, certie, and samarskite. Monazite and bastnasite are
presently the two more important sources of cerium.
Large deposits of monazite (found on the beaches of Travancore, India and in
river sands in Brazil), allanite (in the western United States), and bastnasite
(in Southern California) will supply cerium, thorium, and
the other rare-earth metals for many years to come.
Metallic cerium is prepared by metallothermic reduction techniques, such as
reducing cerous fluoride with calcium,
or using electrolysis of molten cerous chloride or others
processes. The metallothermic technique produces high-purity cerium.
PropertiesCerium is especially interesting because of its variable
electronic structure. The energy of the inner 4f level is nearly the same as
that of the outer or valence electrons, and only small amounts of energy are
required to change the relative occupancy of these electronic levels. This gives
rise to dual valency states.
For example, a volume change of about 10 percent occurs when cerium is
subjected to high pressures or low temperatures. Cesium's valence appears to
change from about 3 to 4 when it is cooled or compressed. The low temperature
behavior of cerium is complex.
Cerium is an iron-gray lustrous metal. It is malleable, and oxidizes very
readily at room temperature, especially in moist air. Except for europium, cerium is the most reactive of the rare-earth
metals. It decomposes slowly in cold water and rapidly in hot water.
Alkali solutions and dilute and concentrated acids attack the metal rapidly.
The pure metal is likely to ignite if scratched with a knife.
Ceric slats are orange red or yellowish; cerous salts are usually white.
UsesCerium is a component of misch metal, which is extensively used in
the manufacture of pyrophoric alloys for cigarette lighters. While cerium is not
radioactive, the impure commercial grade may contain traces of thorium, which is
radioactive. The oxide is an important constituent of incandescent gas mantles
and is emerging as a hydrocarbon catalyst in self cleaning ovens. In this
application it can be incorporated into oven walls to prevent the collection of
As ceric sulfate is used extensively as a volumetric oxidizing agent in
quantitative analysis. Cerium compounds are used in the manufacture of glass,
both as a component and as a decolorizer.
The oxide is finding increased use as a glass polishing agent instead of
rouge, for it polishes much faster than rouge. Cerium, with other rare earths,
is used in carbon-arc lighting, especially in the motion picture industry. It is
also finding use as an important catalyst in petroleum refining and in
metallurgical and nuclear applications.
Costs (estimated)In small lots, 99.9% cerium costs about $125/kg.